Date of Award
Master of Science
Master of Sociology
This study is designed to make a comparative analysis of relationship patterns existing between Negro and white farm operators, and between operators and laborers in the Garwood rice farming section, Colorado County, Texas. The analysis will be based on these questions: 1. What is the nature of the relationship between the Negro farm operator and the white farm operator? 2. Is there a difference in the type and extent of relations between the Negro operator and laborer, and that of the white operator and laborer? If there is, what is the nature of the difference and to what extent does the difference exist?
The comparison will be made on the basis of (1) wages paid, (2) working conditions and (3) accomodations offered. The basis for comparison of relationship patterns of Negro and white operators are: (1) attitudes, (2) standards of living, (3) caste and class policy and (4) accomodations in sharing the factors of production.
In this study the term "farm operator" will include four types of farmers: (1) full owners, or those who own the land which they farm; (2) part owners, or those who own part of the land and rent additional; (3) managers operating farms for owners, receiving wages or salaries and (4) tenants, who operate on rented land only. This group will include cash pay renters, croppers who share the crop with land owners, and others who pay cash for part of the land and share their crop for the remainder.
In a "caste society" persons are born into one group or another, and by virture of being so placed and regardless of personal merit, they have certain limitations. There is very little nobility from one level to another. Because of some external label, like color, more shape or statute, it is pointed out and used to hold in their place those who are born in a given level.11
Our racial caste system has its roots in slavery, but it thrusts its contemporary tentacles into every crevice of our social structure. Its origional purpose was to keep the non-whites in an inferior position. Generally speaking, the attitudes of whites, ranging from friendly paternalism to hatred and hostility, tend to recognize a caste status in which all whites are in one way or another superior to all Negroes, who in turn must in no respect be superior to any whites; while the reciprocal attitudes which Negroes must assume in order to survive in a caste-controlled society tend to recognize this subordinate status.12
Social stance is not so much a matter of "where" as of "how" one stands. A Negro may climb from grinning subservience to quiet dignity; but if he must continue to observe the lines in his contact with white persons,he continues to feel the bars as of prision confining him. Race attitudes in America are formed not so much through or because of contacts with other races as through contact with the prevailing race attitude.
In a "class system" there is also a social hiearchy and those up above feel superior to those down below. The difference between the two system of stratification is in that the mobility from one level to another is far greater in the class system and the separation is less rigid. Even in exclusive social circles, high position has bee attained in part through personal effort. Although family background is of importance, individual attainments, economic and otherwise, count for more.
11 Robert L. Sutherlend, Color, Class and Personality. (Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education, 1942) p. 2. 12 Buel Gallagher, Color and Conscience, (New York: Harper and Bro., 1946) p. 2,3.
H. A. Bullock
Prairie View A&M College
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Date of Digitization
John B Coleman Library
City of Publication
Clarke, I. E. (1949). Relations of Operator and Laborer in Rice Culture. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.pvamu.edu/pvamu-theses/431