Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science

Degree Discipline



The fifteen elements starting with lanthanum and ending with lutetlum are known as the rare earth. These elements show great resemblance to each ether in their chemical and physical properties. They all show the valence of +3, and the solubilities of their compounds differ only slightly, dino# the periodic law predicts but one element between barium and halfniua, it is net surprising that the elements of this group have similar properties. The similarity between these elements is in the arrangement of electrons within this group. For moat elements, an Increase of atomic number is attended with addition of an electron to the highest normal energy level, but for the rare earth group of elements the highest normal energy level has the same number of electrons throughout. Within the rare earth group the change occurs deep Inside the atom.

In nature, this group of elements is found together. Bacaus© of their similarities it is very difficult to separate these elements by ordinary chemical methods this is why the pure elements and compounds arc so expensive. In recent years, the introduction of the ion exchange method has greatly improved their separation.

It Is known that samarium, ytterbium and europium exist in the dipositive state. It Is also known that the dipositive state of these elements is unstable in acid solution. The objective of this investigation Is to determine how long the above elements will exist in dilute acid as the dipositive ion and to determine the rate at which the dipositive is oxidized to the tripositive state. The research chemist needs this information so that he may intelligently devise methods of studying other properties of the dipositiv® ion in acid solution.

Committee Chair/Advisor

C.T. Stubblefield

Committee Member

E.E. Bannon


Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical College


© 2021 Prairie View A & M University

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Date of Digitization


Contributing Institution

John B Coleman Library

City of Publication

Prairie View





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