Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science

Degree Discipline



Valid knowledge concerning the teaching and learning of arithmetic can be obtained only through investigation, that is competent and thorough from the viewpoint of research techniques. This knowledge must be so conceived and carried out that information gained, thereby, can be adapted directly to the practiced enterprises of teaching and learning.

This thesis was planned with the hope that it might make some slight contribution to improve instruction in primary arithmetic. The efficiency of instruction at this level in teaching arithmetic may be measured by the ability of the pupils. These learning aspects relate to: 1. Understanding of the processes of addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. 2. Skill in their use in solving simple verbal problems. 3. The influence of various forms of number presentation (abstract and concrete) upon success in solving these problems.

In this study, we are interested primarily with the achievements of pupils in arithmetic; however, other factors will be involved to diagnose each pupil thoroughly. These are the intelligence quotient, mental age, social background, environment, and previous instruction.

This study is somewhat limited, because there is a very limited number of standardized tests on the market for grades one and two. Secondly, individual difference enters in any case where humans are involved.

Committee Chair/Advisor

A. C. Preston


Prairie View A&M College


© 2021 Prairie View A & M University

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Date of Digitization


Contributing Institution

John B Coleman Library

City of Publication

Prairie View




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