Risk and Protective Markers for Well-Being in Latinx Immigrants in Removal Proceedings

Document Type


Publication Date



Objectives: There are currently 1,308,327 immigrants in removal proceedings, over 80% of whom are Latinx (TRAC, 2021b). This study examined the relation among putative protective markers (i.e. social support, religious support, and legal support) and the emotional and physical well-being of Latinx individuals facing removal proceedings. Hypotheses: We hypothesized that increased social support, religious support, and legal support would buffer the negative relations between hopelessness, poor self-efficacy, and well-being measures (depression, anxiety, stress, mental well-being, somatic symptoms, and physical well-being). Method: Participants (N = 157; 31.2% men, M age = 33.4 years) had an active immigration court case in Texas and completed a demographic questionnaire, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Multi-Faith Religious Support Scale, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21, Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and Short Form Health Survey-12. Results: Higher levels of hopelessness and poor self-efficacy were associated with more negative well-being outcomes, while social support was associated with more positive well-being outcomes. Contrary to hypotheses, religious support and legal support served as risk markers independently, while legal support interacted with hopelessness, such that decreased legal support was associated with higher mental well-being at lower levels of hopelessness and interacted with poor self-efficacy, such that increased legal support was associated with poorer mental well-being at lower levels of self-efficacy. All effect sizes were small (rsp2 =.04 to.16). Conclusions: Targeting hopelessness and poor self-efficacy while promoting social support may help mental health professionals improve the well-being of immigrants in removal proceedings.

This document is currently not available here.