Biowastes of slaughterhouses and wet markets: an overview of waste management for disease prevention

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Slaughterhouse and wet market wastes are pollutants that have been always neglected by society. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, more than three billion and nineteen million livestock were consumed worldwide in 2018, which reflects the vast amount and the broad spectrum of the biowastes generated. Slaughterhouse biowastes are a significant volume of biohazards that poses a high risk of contamination to the environment, an outbreak of diseases, and insecure food safety. This work comprehensively reviewed existing biowaste disposal practices and revealed the limitations of technological advancements to eradicate the threat of possible harmful infectious agents from these wastes. Policies, including strict supervision and uniform minimum hygienic regulations at all raw food processing factories, should therefore be tightened to ensure the protection of the food supply. The vast quantity of biowastes also offers a zero-waste potential for a circular economy, but the incorporation of biowaste recycling, including composting, anaerobic digestion, and thermal treatment, nevertheless remains challenging.

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