Pauli structures arising from confined particles interacting via a statistical potential
There have been suggestions that the Pauli exclusion principle alone can lead a non-interacting (free) system of identical fermions to form crystalline structures dubbed Pauli crystals. Single-shot imaging experiments for the case of ultra-cold systems of free spin-polarized fermionic atoms in a two-dimensional harmonic trap appear to show geometric arrangements that cannot be characterized as Wigner crystals. This work explores this idea and considers a well-known approach that enables one to treat a quantum system of free fermions as a system of classical particles interacting with a statistical interaction potential. The model under consideration, though classical in nature, incorporates the quantum statistics by endowing the classical particles with an effective interaction potential. The reasonable expectation is that possible Pauli crystal features seen in experiments may manifest in this model that captures the correct quantum statistics as a first order correction. We use the Monte Carlo simulated annealing method to obtain the most stable configurations of finite two-dimensional systems of confined particles that interact with an appropriate statistical repulsion potential. We consider both an isotropic harmonic and a hard-wall confinement potential. Despite minor differences, the most stable configurations observed in our model correspond to the reported Pauli crystals in single-shot imaging experiments of free spin-polarized fermions in a harmonic trap. The crystalline configurations observed appear to be different from the expected classical Wigner crystal structures that would emerge should the confined classical particles had interacted with a pair-wise Coulomb repulsion.
Batle, J., Ciftja, O., Farouk, A., Alkhambashi, M., & Abdalla, S. (2017). Pauli structures arising from confined particles interacting via a statistical potential. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.pvamu.edu/chemistry-physics-facpubs/177