Minimum and maximum energy for crystals of magnetic dipoles

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Properties of many magnetic materials consisting of dipoles depend crucially on the nature of the dipole–dipole interaction. In the present work, we study systems of magnetic dipoles where the dipoles are arranged on various types of one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional lattices. It is assumed that we are in the regime of strong dipole moments where a classical treatment is possible. We combine a new classical numerical approach in conjuncture with an ansatz for an energy decomposition method to study the energy stability of various magnetic configurations at zero temperature for systems of dipoles ranging from small to an infinite number of particles. A careful analysis of the data in the bulk limit allows us to identify very accurate minimum and maximum energy bounds as well as ground state configurations corresponding to various types of lattices. The results suggest stabilization of a particularly interesting ground state configuration consisting of three embedded spirals for the case of a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice.

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