Non-mosaic monosomy 59,X in cattle: a case report

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Animal reproduction science


A 3-year-old Longhorn heifer was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Texas A&M University for inability to get pregnant. Physical examination revealed a small-sized female for age and breed with a normal vulva, vaginal length, and external cervical os. Further assessment by per rectum palpation and trans-rectal ultrasonography revealed a small uterine cervix and cord-like uterine horns with no identifiable ovaries. Additional evaluation including laparoscopy, hormonal evaluation, and genetic analysis allowed ruling out conditions commonly associated with a phenotypic female with infantile or underdeveloped reproductive organs such as freemartin, XY gonadal dysgenesis, testicular feminization, and bilateral ovarian agenesis. Laparoscopy confirmed the presence of a small cervix with small uterine horns and absence of ovaries. Testosterone, progesterone, and 17-β estradiol concentrations were 200.0pg/mL, 1.48ng/mL, and undetectable, respectively. Genetic evaluation determined that the karyotype was 59,X non-mosaic. Evaluation of phenotypically female cattle with infertility and infantile genital organs and absence of ovaries should include cytogenetic analysis to test for possible X monosomy. The 59,X condition should be considered in the differential diagnoses together with freemartin, dysgenesis XY, testicular feminization, and bilateral ovarian agenesis.

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