The genome sequence of taurine cattle: A window to ruminant biology and evolution


Christine G. Elsik, Baylor College of Medicine
Ross L. Tellam, Georgetown University
Kim C. Worley, Baylor College of Medicine
Richard A. Gibbs, Baylor College of Medicine
Donna M. Muzny, Baylor College of Medicine
George M. Weinstock, Baylor College of Medicine
David L. Adelson, The University of Adelaide
Evan E. Eichler, University of Washington
Laura Elnitski, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)
Roderic Guigó, Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona
Debora L. Hamernik, United States Department of Agriculture
Steve M. Kappes, USDA ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
Harris A. Lewin, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
David J. Lynn, Simon Fraser University
Frank W. Nicholas, The University of Sydney
Alexandre Reymond, Université de Lausanne (UNIL)
Monique Rijnkels, Baylor College of Medicine
Loren C. Skow, Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences
Evgeny M. Zdobnov, Université de Genève
Lawrence Schook, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
James Womack, Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences
Tyler Alioto, Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona
Stylianos E. Antonarakis, Université de Genève
Alex Astashyn, National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Charles E. Chappie, Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona
Hsiu Chuan Chen, National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Jacqueline Chrast, Université de Lausanne (UNIL)
Francisco Câmara, Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona
Olga Ermolaeva, National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Charlotte N. Henrichsen, Université de Lausanne (UNIL)
Wratko Hlavina, National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Yuri Kapustin, National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Boris Kiryutin, National Library of Medicine (NLM)

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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thu5 provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.

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