Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
Environmental stressors undoubtedly influence organismal biology, specifically the endocrine system that, in turn, impact cattle at the systems physiology level. Despite the significant advances in understanding the genetic determinants of the ideal dairy or beef cow, there is a grave lack of understanding of the systems physiology and effects of the environmental stressors that interfere with the endocrine system. This is a major problem because the lack of such knowledge is preventing advances in understanding gene-environment interactions and developing science-based solutions to these challenges. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the nature of the major environmental stressors, such as climate (heat, cold, wind, and humidity), nutrition (feeds, feeding systems, and endocrine disruptors) and management (housing density and conditions, transportation, weaning practices). We summarize the impact of each one of these factors on cattle at the systems level, and provide solutions for the challenges. © 2014 Bova et al.
Bova, T., Chiavaccini, L., Cline, G., Hart, C., Matheny, K., Muth, A., Voelz, B., Kesler, D., & Memili, E. (2014). Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 12 (1) https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-12-58